Legalities Of Building Staircases

There are a variety of styles of staircases such as spiral, metal, wooden, U and double L and more besides, but there are only three main categories. This article identifies the main categories and the legal requirements surrounding the measurements for their construction.

The local building rules that had been introduced after the Great Fire of London were upgraded into the National Building Regulations in 1965. There have been two major updates in this time. The first one in 1985 the format was simplified and broken down in to separate parts that dealt with specific areas of the building trade such as fire safety, resistance to the passage of sound and the prevention of falling, collision and impact. It is this last section that covers the legalities of staircase design.

The most recent change in legislation came into effect in April 2013. The new requirements regarding the measurements are listed here. All of the measurements given are in millimetres.

Institutional and Assembly Stair

This type is found in buildings where there will be lots of people using them such as hospitals, hotels, nightclubs and schools. The required measurements are as follows:

  • The length of the tread including the overlap of the one below is 280mm. This is also known as the ‘going’.
  • The maximum height of each single one must be 180mm.
  • All new ones must have a minimum width of 120mm.
  • From the top to the bottom of it there must a handrail on both sides of the structure.

Private Staircases

This type is usually found in private residences and are not just for going between the ground level and the first floor, but also commonly used for loft conversions.

  • The minimum going must be 220mm.
  • The maximum height between each one must be 220mm.
  • A gradient rise of no more than 42 degrees.

General Stairs

This category is for all the other different places you can find them, such as office blocks and blocks of flats.

  • A minimum going of 250mm.
  • The maximum height between each one must be 190mm
  • When designing and building this type of structure there are also other legal requirements that must be considered, whichever category your one falls under:
  • From the gradient or rise of staircase there must be at least 2 metres headroom at all points on it.
  • The landings between flights needs to be at least the same width as the shortest step within the case.

Divorce – Understanding Child Joint and Legal Custody Laws

Both parties are given the right to make decisions about the child’s life and well-being. Joint physical custody is a bit more uncommon and involves the child living with both parents for an equal amount of time.

Fighting over child custody often requires the legal assistance of an experienced lawyer. There are various kinds of arrangements for custody and parents will need to decide which is the best fit for both parties. Assistance in these legal areas is really important with all the new laws and procedures causing confusion for either party. This is not mentioning the emotional toll that divorce takes on not only the two partners, but their children as well.

Legal custody and physical custody are the kind of custody’s that need to be solved between divorcing couples. It is important to understand the difference between joint and sole custody. Physical custody refers to who the child will live with permanently. Legal custody refers to making decisions about the child’s life such as healthcare, education, religion, etc.

Joint custody means that both parents share custody. Joint legal custody is common, as both parties are given the right to make decisions about the child’s life and well-being. Joint physical custody is a bit more uncommon and involves the child living with both parents for an equal amount of time each week or each month.

In sole legal custody, only one parent retains the right to make decisions about the child’s life and well-being. This is uncommon, although in cases in which one parent is deemed unfit to care for or make decisions for the child, sole legal custody may be granted to the other parent.

Sole physical custody is more common than joint physical custody. This is when the child lives permanently with only one parent, but the non-custodial parent is granted visitation rights. Of course, in cases in which the non-custodial parent is considered to be harmful to the child or it is decided that it is in the child’s best interest not to have contact with the non-custodial parent, visitation may be prohibited.

A child custody attorney is the most desired resource for more information about physical and legal custody and which types (joint or sole) are best for your specific case. Child support is another problem that should be discussed with an attorney. This is often a very serious matter, especially in cases in which the non-custodial parent does not make their payments. In situation like these, legal measures such as salary garnishments and suspension of driver’s license may be taken to force payment or as a penalty.

Understanding Blood Alcohol Content and How it is Measured

A person’s Blood Alcohol Content, or BAC, is the percentage of alcohol present in your body. The higher your BAC, the more alcohol you have in your system. The legal limit in the United States is .08% alcohol. Your BAC is dependent on a variety of factors, including your sex, your weight, the speed of your metabolism, your medications, health conditions you may have, how much food you have consumed throughout the day, and of course, how many alcoholic drinks you have had.

So how exactly is your BAC measured? Law enforcement officers use a variety of different measures and tests to determine if you are over the legal limit and thus not legally allowed to drive. If you are ever pulled over by a law enforcement officer under the suspicion that you are driving while intoxicated, the officer will probably first subject you to a series of questions about your previous activity. Where are you coming from? Have you been drinking? How many drinks have you had tonight? If after this series of questions, the officer still suspects that you may be over the legal limit, he or she will probably subject you to a combination of field sobriety tests. Examples of these tests include a walk and turn, a one legged stand, and a horizontal gaze test. If you fail one or more of these tests, the officer has cause to believe that you are too intoxicated to drive and may take you into custody and ask you to submit to other testing.

The most common test to determine your BAC is the breathanalyzer. This machine uses infrared light to determine how much alcohol is present in your body as you breathe into the machine. Since the machine cannot determine factors such as your metabolism rate and food consumption, the machine relies on a conversion factor to determine your BAC. Therefore, the number it provides is not 100% accurate, but instead a close estimate.

A much more accurate BAC test is the BAC blood test. With this test, a sample of blood is taken and the amount of alcohol present in the body is directly measured. These tests are very accurate because they need no conversion factor to estimate your BAC. However, even with their high level of accuracy, problems can occur either when the test is administered or as the sample is transported and handled.

If you are ever charged with a DUI, you should be familiar with BAC tests and how they work. For more information about BAC tests and their potential inaccuracies, visit the website of Rhode Island DUI lawyer James Powderly.